Although the tourism industry is regarded as being kinder to the environment in general than most other industries, its size and wide spread has created negative environmental impacts, both for the natural environment and the cultural as well. Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation associated with tourism activities undermine the important ecological systems and pose severe problems to many tourism destinations. With globalisation, these threats will be exacerbated. It can be ascertained that sustainable development in tourism is premised on the notion that the economy and the environment - physical as well as socio-cultural, are but two sides of the same coin, in other words, the two are intimately linked.
The continuation of tourism as a dynamic and viable industry is thus dependent upon the adoption of a strategic approach to planning and marketing. The hallmark of such an approach is the inclusion of systematic and structured analysis of broader environmental and socio-economic factors affecting tourism demand as an integral part of planning process Faulkner, The strengths of the multinational corporations of tourism, the difficulties of direct access to the consumers of the developing economies, the weaknesses of the quality certification systems, the minimization of environmental impact of tourism, the limited satisfaction of the tourist demand, minimise the implementation of a complete sustainable development CAIRO, Roullet- Cairo, The project of Liberalisation of tourism and sustainable tourism development by the World Tourism Organisation.
The below diagram is a part of a project by WTO which focuses on four points on the diagram below : Productive Transformation, Economic growth and general development for the developing countries, socio-cultural conservation and Sustainable Development, that are contributing to liberalisation of tourism and sustainable tourism development. This project asserts that a sector of dynamic tourism is essential to the development of most of the countries, in particular the developing countries, and that it is essential to increase the participation of the developing countries to the world-wide services of trade, and declares objectively the will of "elaborating more before the disposals of the Agreement, in order to assure equitable commercial conditions for the trade and the consumer needs regarding sustainable development" GATS, The rapid expansion of international tourism has led to significant employment creation.
For example, the hospitality sector provided around WTO, Tourism can generate jobs directly through hotels, restaurants, nightclubs, taxis and souvenir sales, and indirectly through the supply of goods and services needed by tourism — related businesses.
A Global Perspective on Trends in Nature-Based Tourism
The development of vast infrastructures such as roads and other transportation routes goes hand in hand with tourism development. Once an area is targeted for tourism development, the process begins with road building and displacement of the local population. Tourism development can cost the local government and local taxpayers a great deal of money.
Developers may want the government to improve the airport, roads and other infrastructure, and possibly to provide tax breaks and other financial advantages, which are costly activities for the governments, but consequently:. Diversification in an economy is a sign of health, however if a country or region becomes dependent for its economic survival upon one industry, it can put major stress upon this industry as well as the people involved to perform well.
Many countries, especially developing countries with limited ability to explore other resources, have embraced tourism as a way to boost the economy. Tourism can be a significant, even essential part of the local communities and can be considered as an important factor to development by contributing positively to:. While it is easy to conceptualise about the need for sustainable tourism development, it is more challenging to develop an effective, even practical measurement process.
The literature in this subject shows carrying capacity techniques being applied in a variety of circumstances, often clarifying and confirming levels of suspected environment or social stress, but they leave open to discussion what it all signifies and what policy should be undertaken. A major difficulty is that carrying capacity implies the existence of fixed and determinable limits to development and that if one were to stay below threshold levels no changes or determination will occur.
However, it is known for a fact that all changes and modifications to the environment have an incremental effect, so some degree of change must be acknowledged and accounted for at all development stages. The LAC system is a framework for establishing acceptable and appropriate resource use with the primary emphasis being the conditions desired rather than the tolerance of a specific site. The process however, is a combined measurement and planning system not a policy.
Both the carrying capacity and LAC processes examine sustainable tourism from the supply side of the host community, but if tourism is to be sustainable it cannot ignore the tourist demand. Thought should be given to the demand implications of sustainable tourism development, specifically the benefits the visitors are seeking and the marketing strategies that can be applied to service both the visitors and the host societies. Market research should identify which tourism niche is most appropriate from a business and environmental point of view. This kind of marketing analysis and strategy is being practiced in some Canadian national parks, moving away from the traditional promotional and operational focus to one which attempts to manage visitor opportunities and encourage public understanding in order to contribute to the conservation and recreation.
The process uses market research to select target markets, especially the most appropriate public and private mix of opportunities and to guide the design of programs, services, and facilities.
This however, requires an annual and seasonal monitoring system of visitor patterns and satisfactions to provide a visitor profile and strategy guide to the destination and the individual business members. The youngest of all tools of sustainability are those now described as sustainability indicators, the development of which arose from the Rio Summit of Lea,, 4 It is the search for indicators which show linkages between economic social and environmental issues and the power relationships behind them which has given rise to the development of so called sustainability indicators.
Thus far, such indicators have been developed as trials and are currently applied only at local authority level. One important aspect that has been built into these indicators from their inception has been the participation of local community members in their formulation. There is no doubting here the genuine and different attempt to promote such participation as part of the development of sustainability indicators. Cater, There is also no doubting that it is precisely this participation which has led to the use of indicators which are much less remote and much more comprehensible to people than are nationally and internationally derived measures such as GNP, gross domestic investment, and the like.
But their acceptance will face an uphill struggle. The measures most frequently used as the level of national economy relate precisely to that: the economy. Other relevant factors are externalised that is ignored. Moreover, their use is well entrenched and perpetuated by conservative media which accept new ideas with reluctance unless they are forced to do so by a public that has already moved ahead Lea, ; McCool, Moisey, The need to include the social, cultural, environmental and aesthetic factors which our commercial world and controllers normally externalise has not led to a quick redress for such factors, despite public debate of issue.
We summarize with some indicators for achieving and monitoring sustainability aspects in tourism destinations, as are defined by J. Although the growth of Mass tourism has negative effects on the environment, cultural and social ethics, the balanced growth can bring positive impacts on the above and could be the source of economic integration, not only in a particular destination but for the general society, in all social, cultural, economical and environmental issues McKercher, , 14 2 Table 1.
Negative and positive impacts of sustainable tourism development. Tourism can be considered as a tool for social and economic development, as a method to enhance economic opportunity, not as an end itself.
In this sense, tourism is integrated into boarder economic and development programmes Hunter, ; McCool, and can be viewed as a method — similar to many definitions of ecotourism- to protect the natural and social capital upon which the industry is built. By this query, tourism can be viewed as a tool, which at times, may be important to a community and other times not so important.
In this sense, there is no any case of protecting cultures for their value to the tourism industry, but because of their value to their people Robinson, It may be possible under this view that tourism is not sustained over a long period, but is used as a method to accumulate income and government revenue that can be used later for other development tools. Tourism would be viewed as a part of larger policy framework designed to achieve a sustainable society.
These alternative views of sustainable tourism carry significantly different implications for social economic policy, selection of indicators, public participation and the processes of planning should have encouraged the growth of tourism in private sector. They reflect different perspectives on the concept of sustainability.
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It seems that it more properly places tourism as a means and not an end to economic development. It allows tourism to be considered as one of the several alternatives that can help a community overcome its weaknesses and preserve its strengths. It views tourism as a tool and not as an end.
There were about million international tourist arrivals worldwide in , nearly 50 million 7. All regions in the world grew, and the fastest developing region continued to be East Asia and the Pacific with Europe saw an increase of 25 million international tourists 5. The Americas are the second-biggest region, with WTTC, There are many hidden costs to tourism, which can have unfavourable economic effects on the host community. Often rich countries are better able to profit from tourism than poor ones.
Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective
Whereas the least developed countries have the most urgent need for income, employment and general rise of the standard of living by means of tourism, they are least able to realize these benefits. Among the reasons for this are large-scale transfer of tourism revenues out of the host country and exclusion of local businesses and products. WTO, The tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits to both host countries and tourists' home countries. Especially in developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic improvement.
As with other impacts, this massive economic development brings along both positive and negative consequences. Jobs generated by Travel and Tourism are spread across the economy - in retail, construction manufacturing and telecommunications, as well in travel companies. They have a high proportion of women, minorities and youth, are predominantly in small and medium sized enterprises and offer good training and transferability.
In conclusion we summarize some of the action points, which should be practised to achieve sustainability in growing global tourism assumption. The strategies to practise sustainable development, the role of governmental legislation and local participation, are issues which need further investigation in each case. Also some key ideas provided to enhance the notion of sustainability, globalisation and its implications to a cluster of economic sufficiency, social equity and environmental conservation factors.
Common national strategies to achieve sustainability aspects provided below, by the WTO and U. United Nations Environment Program boards ed. The assumption of sustainable tourism development, should be balanced with broader economic, social and environmental objectives at national and local level by setting out a national tourism strategy that is based on knowledge of environmental and biodiversity resources, and is integrated with national and regional sustainable development.
In conclusion, we summarize to some key actions should be taken by the stakeholders for the benefit of sustainable tourism development, considering its positive implications in a socio-cultural, economic, environmental, development and conservation scheme:. To conclude, it is an evident that globalization with its transcontinental flow patterns of global mass has given the tourism industry free reign to develop throughout the world undermining the environmental and socio-cultural resources of local cultures. However, for globalization to be sustainable it should not be read as a universal process of global integration in which there is a growing convergence of cultures and civilizations.
For the unevenness of globalization ensures it is far from a universal process experienced uniformly across the entire planet Mc Grew, Sustainable tourism development thus requires the realisation and active exercise of ecological and social responsibility at the global, national, and local level.
In addition, the successful implementation of sustainable tourism development principles would require integrated policy, planning, and social learning processes. Its viability would depend on the full support of the people it affects through their governments, their social institutions and their private activities. Clayton, B. Coccossis H. Eber S. Principles of Sustainable Tourism : A discussion paper. Faulkner, H.
Greg, R. Gonsalves, P. Held, David and Mcgrew, A. McCool S. Mowforth M. Murphy, P. Neto, F. Varvaressos S. McCool, Moisey, In this paper, at the first part, we analyse the notions of globalisation, sustainability, and sustainable tourism development in attempting to define these subjects and to understand the meaning and the benefits of compromising them.
A brief indication by Vincent of the problems of Mass Tourism follows, to show the extension of the catastrophe and the possible dangers which threaten the ecosystem: - Environmental pollution effects air, water, sites, noise. Tourism And Its Contribution To Globalisation The strengths of the multinational corporations of tourism, the difficulties of direct access to the consumers of the developing economies, the weaknesses of the quality certification systems, the minimization of environmental impact of tourism, the limited satisfaction of the tourist demand, minimise the implementation of a complete sustainable development CAIRO, Roullet- Cairo, Alternative tourism forms 5.
The project of Liberalisation of tourism and sustainable tourism development by the World Tourism Organisation The below diagram is a part of a project by WTO which focuses on four points on the diagram below : Productive Transformation, Economic growth and general development for the developing countries, socio-cultural conservation and Sustainable Development, that are contributing to liberalisation of tourism and sustainable tourism development.
Developers may want the government to improve the airport, roads and other infrastructure, and possibly to provide tax breaks and other financial advantages, which are costly activities for the governments, but consequently: - Tourism can induce the local government to make infrastructure improvements such as better roads, airports, marines, and public transport networks to improve the service quality of transportations.
Tourism can be a significant, even essential part of the local communities and can be considered as an important factor to development by contributing positively to: World peace Strengthening communities Encouraging civic involvement and pride Revaluation of culture and traditions Foreign exchange earnings Economic revenues Employment generation Stimulation of infrastructure investment Enhance the local economies Environmental awareness raising Cultural and rural conservation 6.
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