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Chapter 5 organizes and list the tools used by front-end developers and Chapter 6 highlights front-end information outlets. This chapter provides a baseline explanation for front-end development and the front-end developer discipline. Front-end web development, also known as client-side development is the practice of producing HTML, CSS and JavaScript for a website or Web Application so that a user can see and interact with them directly. The challenge associated with front end development is that the tools and techniques used to create the front end of a website change constantly and so the developer needs to constantly be aware of how the field is developing.

The objective of designing a site is to ensure that when the users open up the site they see the information in a format that is easy to read and relevant. This is further complicated by the fact that users now use a large variety of devices with varying screen sizes and resolutions thus forcing the designer to take into consideration these aspects when designing the site.

They need to ensure that their site comes up correctly in different browsers cross-browser , different operating systems cross-platform and different devices cross-device , which requires careful planning on the side of the developer. A front-end developer architects and develops websites and web applications using web technologies i. A person enters into the field of front-end development by learning to build a website or web application which relies on HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and commonly runs in a web browser but can also run in a headless browser , WebView , or as compilation input for a native runtime environment.

These four run times scenarios are explained below. A web browser is software used to retrieve, present, and traverse information on the WWW. Typically, browsers run on a desktop or laptop computer, tablet, or phone, but as of late a browser can be found on just about anything i. The most common web browsers are shown in order of most used first :. Headless browsers are a web browser without a graphical user interface that can be controlled from a command line interface programmatically for the purpose of web page automation e.

Think of headless browsers as a browser that you can run programmatically from the command line that can retrieve and traverse web page code. Webviews are used by a native OS, in a native application, to run web pages. Think of a webview like an iframe or a single tab from a web browser that is embedded in a native application running on a device e. The most common solutions for webview development are:. Eventually, what is learned from web browser development can be used by front-end developers to craft code for environments that are not fueled by a browser engine i.

As of late, development environments are being dreamed up that use web technologies e. This chapter will break down and broadly describes the practice of front-end engineering starting with, "How Front-End Developers Are Made". How exactly does one become a front-end developer? Well, it's complicated. Just consider this road map:. Today, in general, one can't go to college and expect to graduate with a degree in front-end engineering. And, I rarely hear of or meet front-end developers who suffered through what is likely a deprecated computer science degree or graphic design degree to end up writing HTML, CSS, and JavaScript professionally.


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From my perspective, most of the people working on the front-end today generally seem to be self-taught from the ground up or cross over into the front-end space from design or computer science fields. If you were to set out today to become a front-end developer I would loosely strive to follow the process outlined below Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 will dive into more details on learning resources. A short word of advice on learning. Learn the actual underlying technologies, before learning abstractions. Don't learn jQuery, learn the DOM. Don't learn TypeScript, learn JavaScript.

Don't just use Bootstrap, learn UI patterns. These avenues of becoming a front-end developer are typically teacher directed courses, that follow a more traditional style of learning, from an official instructor i. Keep in mind, if you are considering an expensive training program, this is the web! Everything you need to learn is on the web for the taking, costing little to nothing. However, if you need someone to tell you how to take and learn what is low cost to free, and hold you accountable for learning it, you should consider a traditional instructor lead class room setting.

Otherwise, I am not aware of any other profession that is practically free for the taking with an internet connection, a couple of dollars a month for screencasting memberships , and a burning desire for knowledge. For example, if you want to get going today, consuming one or more of the following self-directed resources below can work:.

When getting your start, you should fear most things that conceal complexity. Abstractions e.

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It is assumed that on this journey you are not only learning, but also doing as you learn and investigate tools. Some suggest only doing to learn. While others suggest only learning about doing. I suggest you find a mix of both that matches how your brain works and do that. But, for sure, it is a mix! So, don't just read about it, do it. Learn, do. Repeat indefinitely because things change fast. This is why learning the fundamentals, and not abstractions, are so important.

A great divide has been brewing in the front-end developer space for several years between two very different types of so-called front-end developers. On the one side, you have JavaScript-focused programmers who write JavaScript for front-end runtimes that likely have computer science skills with a software development history. In , when entering or trying to understand the front-end developer space you will absolutely feel this divide.

The term front-end developer is on the verge of meaninglessness without clarifying words to address what type of front-end developer is being discussed. Below is a list and description of various front-end job titles Keep in mind titles are hard. The common, or most used i. Front-End Engineer aka JavaScript Developer or Full-stack JavaScript Developer : The job title given to a developer who comes from a computer science, engineering, background and is using these skills to work with front-end technologies.

This role typically requires computer science knowledge and years of software development experience. When the word "JavaScript Application" is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer should be an advanced JavaScript developer possessing advanced programming, software development, and application development skills i. Front-End Web Designer : When the word "Designer" is included in the job title, this will denote that the designer will possess front-end skills i. Front-End Accessibility Expert : When the word "Accessibility" is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience crafting front-end technologies that support accessibility requirements and standards.

Front-End Dev. Ops : When the word "DevOps" is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience with software development practices pertaining to collaboration, integration, deployment, automation, and quality. The following core web technologies are employed by front-end developers consider learning them in this order :. For a comprehensive list of all web related specifications have a look at platform. The nine technologies just mentioned are defined below along with a link to the relevant documentation and specification for each technology.

Web browsers can read HTML files and render them into visible or audible web pages. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically along with cues for presentation, making it a markup language, rather than a programming language. Cascading Style Sheets CSS is a style sheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in a markup language. Along with HTML and JavaScript, CSS is a cornerstone technology used by most websites to create visually engaging webpages, user interfaces for web applications, and user interfaces for many mobile applications.

A uniform resource locator URL also called a web address is a reference to a resource that specifies the location of the resource on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages http , but are also used for file transfer ftp , email mailto , database access JDBC , and many other applications. The nodes of every document are organized in a tree structure, called the DOM tree.

Objects in the DOM tree may be addressed and manipulated by using methods on the objects.

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JavaScript is a high level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language. Alongside HTML and CSS, it is one of the three essential technologies of World Wide Web content production; the majority of websites employ it and it is supported by all modern web browsers without plug-ins. JavaScript is prototype-based with first-class functions, making it a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.

Below is a list of all the interfaces that is, types of objects that you may be able to use while developing your Web app or site. Code for parsing and generating JSON data is readily available in many programming languages. The ECMA standard is minimal, describing only the allowed grammar syntax, whereas the RFC also provides some semantic and security considerations. The JSON filename extension is.

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Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities. Beyond the skills just mentioned, a front-end developer might also be specifically skilled in one or more of the following:.


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Generally speaking, front-end technologies can run on the aforementioned operating systems and devices using the following run time web platform scenarios:. A front-end developer is typically only one player on a team that designs and develops web sites, web applications, or native applications running from web technologies. A bare-bones development team for building professional web sites or software for the web platform will typically, minimally, contain the following roles.

The roles are ordered according to overlapping skills. It is not uncommon for team members to fill more than one role by taking on the responsibilities of an over-lapping role. It is assumed that the team mentioned above is being directed by a project lead or some kind of product owner i. The term "Full-Stack" developer has come to take on several meanings. So many, that not one meaning is clear when the term is used. Just consider the results from the two surveys shown below. These results might lead one to believe that being a full-stack developer is commonplace.

But, in my almost 20 years of experience, this is anything but the case in a professional context. Any person who can fill one or more of these 4 roles at a professional level is an extremely rare commodity. Pragmatically, you should seek to be, or seek to hire, an expert in one of these roles i.

Those who claim to operate at an expert level at one or more of these roles are exceptionally rare. However, given that JavaScript has infiltrated all layers of a technology stack i. Typically, these full-stack developers only deal with JavaScript. A developer who can code the front-end, back-end, API, and database isn't as absurd as it once was excluding visual design, interaction design, and CSS.

Still mythical in my opinion, but not as uncommon as it once was. Thus, I wouldn't recommend a developer set out to become a "full-stack" developer. In rare situations, it can work. But, as a general concept for building a career as a front-end developer, I'd focus on front-end technologies.

A plethora of technical job listing outlets exist. The national average in the U. Of course when you first start expect to enter the field at around 40k depending upon location and experience. This chapter highlights the many resources video training, books, etc.

Industrial Designers

The learning resources identified articles, books, videos, screencasts etc.. Underwriting needs to adapt to the changes in product offerings and be able to evaluate, rate, price, and negotiate not just the core insurance policy, but also the full offering of services carriers provide for the insured. Brokers must be able to constantly explore new data sources while bringing insights into the underwriting process at the point of need.

By educating underwriters on these new insights and integrating the data into their work processes, the underwriting function can retain its advantage in and ever-expanding sea of information. Leaders in insurance will need to get creative in the way they attract and retain a new workforce with a wide range of skills and experience.

Some of the key workforce trends to consider are the automation of more routine manual tasks and reassigning front-line employees to more analytical roles. But by far, the most crucial change to the workforce will come from the generational shift. Millennials will make up 76 percent of the global workforce by Engaging these digital natives in the right way can leverage the enthusiasm for technology, the teamwork and the digital acumen of millennials to push forward on new underwriting initiatives.

New technology is constantly emerging, and the pace of adoption is faster than ever. The winners, as always, will be the ones that can seamlessly deliver the full range of tools, options, advice and resources to the underwriter at the right time, in the right place and in the right format for them to use. In the new digital underwriting ecosystem, there are a lot more of these tools and resources to coordinate. Insurers that take a holistic approach and integrate solutions across their entire organization will be the ones that thrive in this new environment.

Where does your underwriting organization fit in this landscape?

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Are you still in the pilot stage or have you started full-scale implementation? Please send your comments, questions and feedback to me at michael. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. We use cookies to enable website functionality, understand the performance of our site, provide social media features, and serve more relevant content to you. Their Pantheon PCB Layout Software is an ideal PCB design software tool for electronics engineers because it offers an easy-to-use interface with basic to advanced design options for increased productivity and efficiency.

A premier electrical engineering community for hardware designers, EEWeb offers Microstrip Impedance. This handy PCB design tool does not require any installation or downloads, as it is a web-based PCB microstrip impedance calculator. Simple and useful, this PCB design tool is one electronics engineers should bookmark to use for their next design. CIRCAD includes schematic capture, netlist generation, PCB layout, copper pour, design rule checking, several manufacturing output formats, and standard component libraries. Their online PCB data verification tools give electronics engineers additional piece of mind by enabling them to verify PCB data prior to placing orders.

The printed electronics industry is new and growing rapidly.


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    Altium Designer 17 altium A software company providing PC-based electronics design software for engineers, Altium presents Designer Key Features: Leverages innovative technologies to help electronics engineers focus less on process and more on design Product more inspired designs by concentrating more on the creative aspects of your workflow Effortless design automation Endless engineering reach Intuitive team collaboration Verify designs in the mechanical world Centralize trusted design assets Cost: FREE trial available; Contact for a quote 4.

    Key Features: Online tutorials available Output is suitable for publication Regards circuits as inherently hierarchical and writes both hierarchical PostScript output and hierarchical SPICE netlists Saves circuit components in libraries that are fully editable Maintains flexibility in style without compromising the power of schematic capture Especially useful for tasks requiring repeated use of a standard set of graphical objects including PCB layouts Cost: FREE 9.

    CircuitMaker CircuitMaker A free PCB design tool powered by Altium, CircuitMaker also includes a community of creative people that works together to invent circuits and electronics products. Key Features: Design high-quality schematics and PCBs with no artificial limits on layer counts or board areas Rely on the community to find reference designs and to promote and rate other projects Set up teams for collaborative designs Cost: FREE Pad2Pad pad2padpcb Pad2Pad is a printed circuit board manufacturer with free design software.

    Key Features: Grows with evolving design challenges and provides scalability for future challenges Fully integrated simulation and analysis technologies ensure first pass-success without any need for translations Intuitive interfaces make OrCAD easy to learn and use Powerful, effective functionality depth with award-winning OrCAD technologies Cost: FREE trial available; Contact for a quote Key Features: Improved polygon functions for merging, clipping, and optimizing more complex designs Gerber files free with every PCB order Enhanced user controls for faster rendering, smoother drag and drop, more zoom control, and unified control panels Slots and cutouts available in parts definitions Cost: FREE Key Features: Easy to use High-performance tool Choose TINACloud for editing and running your circuit simulation designs online on PCs, Macs, thin clients, tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, and ebook readers without any installation Fully integrated layout module includes all the features electronics engineers need for advanced PCB design, including multilayer PCBs with split power plane layers, powerful autoplacement and auto routing, rip-up and reroute, manual and follow-me trace placement, 3D views of your PCB design from any angle, and much more Cost: TINA Fritzing FritzingOrg A free software tool to support designs, artists, hobbyists, and engineers work creatively with interactive electronics, Fritzing is an open-source hardware initiative.

    Key Features: Complete circuit simulation, PCB design, and electronic circuit design online Supports Mac, Linux, Windows, Android, and all other platforms by requiring zero installation and existing in a cross-platform environment for electronics engineers Powerful PCB layout and simulation capability with massive libraries of schematic components, PCB footprints and packages, spice simulation, and more Import designs from Eagle, Altium, KiCad, and LTspice Operate quickly and lay out PCB design quickly even with multiple layers and thousands of pads Cost: FREE Proteus From Labcenter Electronics, Proteus combines powerful features with ease of use to help electronics engineers design, test, and lay out professional PCBs incredibly quickly and easily.

    Upverter upverter Upverter is a leader in cloud-based PCB design tools, and they attribute their success to empowering engineers by equipping them with world-class technology, knowledge, and support. Key Features: Often used to draw one-line diagrams, block diagrams, and presentation drawings Flat or hierarchical schematic entry Includes many popular PCB layout-compatible netlist formats Convenient support for embedding graphical images in drawings Cost: FREE Key Features: Stores complete design information in the integrated project and is accessible by Schematic Design Editor, PCB Layout Editor, Fabrication Output Manger, and Simulators Analyze and validate the functionality and behavior of circuits captured in the form of schematic diagrams Fully automatic front and back annotation of all design changes Includes an extensive part library that may be updated, customized, and enhanced via the Library Editor Cost: EdWinXP 2.

    Key Features: Spatial resolution of 10 nanometers for precision Place parts anywhere on the board with any orientation Run traces of any with along any path and at any angle Supports both metric and imperial unit, even on the same design Integrated parts editor for easily defining new part types or modifying existing part types Cost: FREE for small designs with fewer than pins OsmondCocoa 1. Lets Talk! Please Contact Me. You can also call us directly by phone: or email info pannam. Linkedin Twitter Facebook. Share This Share this post with your friends!