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For a brief moment Argentine reformers, Ford executives, and American policy-makers all shared in the belief that the rational application of investment and scientific expertise could 'speed up' history and rapidly transform Argentina into a modern and fully industrial economy. His policies, with their emphasis on car manufacturing, oil exploration, steel production, and road building, can be read as an attempt to recreate in Argentina the prosperity and 'freedom' associated with U.

The Falcon stands as a particularly apt symbol of the overlapping interests that shaped early Cold War modernism because it was the brainchild of none other than Robert McNamara, who enjoyed a brilliant career at Ford Motors before joining John F. Kennedy's inner circle as Secretary of Defense in Part of a broader skills transfer between the military and expanding American corporations in these years, these men had brought new methods of statistical analysis and planning to Ford that they had learned at the Harvard Business School and honed through the logistical challenges of World War II.

Though McNamara's bookish manner fit awkwardly into Ford's corporate culture at first, by the late s he was considered the company's "reigning intellectual. In the late s Robert McNamara was charged with supervising a secret new design project at Ford for a compact car that would break fundamentally with the lavish oversized sedans of the s. This innovation came in response to growing competition from European imports: especially the Volkswagen Beetle, the antithesis of s American automotive principles.

McNamara pushed Ford engineers to cut 1, pounds out of their typical six-person sedan by removing nearly all the chrome ornamentation typical of s models and cutting the frame down to a bare minimum of components. The result was an entirely new design: a body made from a continuous sheet of metal and a six-cylinder engine incorporating aluminum parts to reduce weight. McNamara's goal was to return to early Ford principles of simplicity and durability that dated back to Henry Ford's original Model T.

The new Falcon would offer the feel of a big American car but the smaller size and economy associated with European compacts. The car was an immediate runaway success, selling more than a million vehicles in the U. As the simplest new model in Ford's integrated product line, the Falcon was to serve as global ambassador for the modernized Ford brand. Ford Motors spared no expense in promoting its new Falcon, dubbing it "the easiest car in the wide world to own.

A twenty-page supplement in the Sunday New York Times showcased the "painstaking, plodding, intensive" statistical analysis employed by Ford's Advance Planning team in the Falcon's design. A new Falcon stood front and centre, flanked by a Model T and Model A, above a headline that read: "Today it takes ten thousand engineers to create something for everyone in automobiles.

Butterfield explained how the production innovations and relatively high wages that had made the Model T the world's first mass-produced vehicle in the s had "made a liar out of [Karl] Marx" by turning U. In his original Dearborn factory, Ford had pushed "enlightened American capitalism along the road it has been following ever since: the road toward higher wages, higher profits, and a car or two in every garage. Such ideals resonated powerfully in Argentina, a country proud of its own long history of motorization and special relationship with the Ford brand. Argentina had boasted the highest per capita levels of car ownership in Latin America since the beginning of the century, and Ford Motors had chosen Buenos Aires as the site of its second overseas offices in A Model T assembly plant had opened in the s, and by Argentina had ranked among the world's most motorized societies.

He used state funds to sponsor motorsports as official propaganda and declared car manufacturing a 'national priority' in He also sought partnerships with American and European firms and founded a fledgling state-run automaker which produced a modest run of vehicles, including the official Peronist car, the Justicialista.

Like his Brazilian counterpart Juscelino Kubitschek, Frondizi was an ardent developmentalist who believed that Argentina could quickly modernize its economy through the rational application of technocratic expertise and partnerships with multinational corporations. It is not justice; it is the need for technical-economic transformation. The shift to automotive manufacturing, oil exploration, and steel production would not only strengthen national industry and correct balance of payment problems.

It would buy social peace by expanding employment, fostering consumption, and unifying the nation through interregional travel and tourism. Ford Motors loomed large in Frondizi's dreams of transplanting American-style consumer culture to Argentina, and Ford executives anxious to beat out their rivals were quick to align themselves publicly with Frondizi's ambitious goals. By the end of that year, Ford had founded an Argentine subsidiary and purchased land in the suburbs north of Buenos Aires for a new truck factory.

Frondizi took a personal interest in the project, visiting the construction site on several occasions through , and in confidential meetings, government officials promised Ford executives advantageous terms if they were to submit the country's first American passenger car proposal. President Frondizi was reportedly anxious for Henry Ford II to return to Buenos Aires to make the announcement since he credited the early success of his industrial policies to Ford's first visit and public endorsement.

With the Falcon's launch in the early s, Ford Argentina carefully attuned its publicity to the era's discourse of economic growth and social progress. Though privately executives described Argentina with some ambivalence as a "good, though by no means riskless, opportunity for investment," publicly the company pronounced its impassioned commitment to Argentine industrialization. In the aftermath of the Cuban revolutionary victory at the beginning of , American business interests and policymakers were eager to tell Latin Americans what they wanted to hear: that they too were committed to grand projects of economic 'development.

Back in Argentina, Ford executives promised that their manufacturing investment would bring the country more than new vehicles: it would help to foster an ambitious project of social engineering. At the groundbreaking ceremony for the new factory, Ford Motors Vice-President Tom Lilley proclaimed: "We have the opportunity to contribute to the creation of an industrial complex and a middle class that will be crucial to the development of this great nation of the Americas and to the western world. Our great opportunity is to so assist in this process that we shall benefit both from the political stability that will emerge and from the tremendous capacity to consume that must inevitably be generated.

Willey declared: "Just as the epic Ford T once opened new roads in this immense territory, the new FALCON is a symbol of Argentina's current will to move toward a prosperous and secure future. Some issues about History and Memory relationship in the reconstruction of the past. The union revitalization in the period of convertibility in Argentina. Discursive confrontation in the process of union autonomy of the Buenos Aires subway workers Different views on the provisional inclusion plan.

Chain Of Events In Argentina Follows Deposing Of President Frondizi (1962)

A challenge to studies of trajectories from a regional perspective in Argentina. Assessment of the perspectives of the process of land titling in the rural community San Juan de Miraflores. August, Sexual division and suffering at work: the case of recovered factories. The emergence and decline of absenteeism as a problem for the government of the working population Argentine, XX century. Num 19, Winter, Reactivation of labor mobilization in the automotive industry Num 18 , Summer, From the weekly to the book.

An analysis about their conditions and possibilities Luisina P. Num 17 , vol. XV, Winter, Impoverishment or drop in status? Reflections on " The Young singles. The role of the university. Rosana E. Union Statutes, the forgotten source. The case of the structures of trade union employees. Women, work, and media, some conceptual approaches. XV, Summer, Useful tools or obstacles for the social sciences?

XIV, Fall, Discussions about Revolutionary Potential of Unionism. Pierre Bourdieu and the social fact religious. XIII, Summer Number 11 , vol. X, Spring Neoliberalism and union organizations resistance. Beliefs, Memory and tradition in the Congress of Argentine Workers. Number 10 , vol. The rules of art by Pierre Bourdieu. Sociology as literary gender. Number 9 , vol. Beatriz Ocampo Education, School and Centenary. The case of Santiago del Estero.

The processes of social construction of resistance.

Frondizi and the Politics of Developmentalism in Argentina, 1955–62

The case of chain Coto supermarkets. Paula Abal Medina Crisis of the work and workers' management. Collective dynamics of management in recovered productive units in Argentina Number 8 , vol. Notes on its origin Patricia A. Number 7 , vol. VII , junio septiembre, Areli Escobar S. VI , junio septiembre, A theoretical model of social class. Number 5 , vol. V, sept. Number 4 , vol. Number 3 , vol. Regional Labor Market Dynamics in a five year period. Robin y Carlos Crucella. Living from art: business models in the economic activity of independent musicians in Tijuana, Mexico.

The work focuses on the study of the economic activity of independent musicians. It has two main objectives: 1 knowing the strategies or business models that they deploy in order to obtain income from their cultural proposals, and; 2 determine how they incorporate information technology into these projects. The empirical data come from fifteen interviews conducted to independent musicians of different musical genres that display their work in the city of Tijuana.

In general, they tend to favor the modalities of live performances over the sale of songs. The Internet, especially social networks like Facebook, is used fundamentally under the logic of promotion. Keywords : independent musician; business models; cultural economic activity; TICs. Public policies, specifically social policies, promoted by the Ministry of Social Development of the Nation hereinafter, MDSN of Argentina from to revalued the cooperative and self-managed work. These policies revolved around the principles of the social economy and the centrality of the territory. The general objective of this work is to analyze the generalities, antecedents and counterpoints of the Social Income with Work Program - Argentina Works from its emergence in under the MDSN until The methodology is qualitative within which various techniques were developed and was based on the analysis of documents and, mainly, on the bibliographic review.

Likewise, sources of secondary data on program background were collected in terms of social policies with labor compensation, which were turned over to a database and analyzed according to their objectives, origins and responsibilities. This article makes a relevant contribution in the field of public policy specifically in the area of social policy. It is investigated in the particularities of its application in Gran Rosario, one of the most important manufacturing zones of the country. Keywords: working class, factory occupations, unrest, Gran Rosario, sixties. Based on a multi-level ethnographic approach, this article proposes a reading that shows the contemporary tensions in a policing model that is centralized and monopolistic by the action of a thePortuguese national State, and simultaneously pulverizes itself in the territory supportedby a n operational dynamic located in small police stations.

Although the recent democratic transition has led the urban police to adopt a philosophy of proximity policing institutional change has several hesitations that point out how police stations ,local policing and officers often work without a clear plan of what is its activity , mantaining residues of a not so distantauthoritarian past. Keywords: policing, proximity, democracy, policemodel, Portugal. Carla Gras. Facundo Zorzoli. The complexity of the processes associated with the expansion of agribusiness requires spatial and temporary detailed situated analysis.

In this paper, we address changes in land tenure and their impacts in terms of agrarian differentiation in the northwest of Argentina. Drawing upon debates on global land grabbing, we explore three dynamics that shape them: land valorisation, environmental degradation and generation of agricultural business models. We integrate the role of technology and environmental effects in the analysis of land grabbing. The research is based on qualitative and quantitative methods ethnographic work, interviews, field-scanning, and analysis of official statistical data.

Convertibility, political performativity and agrarian protest. Of the initial consensuses and their limits in the Cordoba pampas Our focus will be on collective protest actions, since we consider it a privileged access road for the analysis of both the demands channeled to the State and the messages within the representation structure of the interests of agriculture.

Under this assumption, we will take as a guiding principle the idea that at the end of the hyperinflationary crisis of - which marked the emergency phase of a new social regime of accumulation - both the main areas of negotiation and the conflict networks that characterized the relational dynamics between government and agricultural entities. In this context, convertibility emerged as a resource of high political performativity that allowed successive governments to evade structured demands by a large majority of the demands of the rural world.

Key words: Convertibility, Agrarian entities, Fields of negotiation and conflictual networks, Political Performativity. After the conflict. The parliamentary actions of the Argentinian agrarian bourgeoisie In the following paper, we will undertake a detailed study of the parliamentary actions of the agrarian corporations over the period. That is, a consolidated parliamentary bloc, tied to agrarian interests and capable of dragging certain parties an impose its will. For that purpose, we have, first and foremost, undertaken a brief review on the project processing linked to the agrarian sector before the conflict.

Secondly, we will seek to reconstruct which has been the preparation of the agrarian entities for the elections in June and the political actions of the deputies linked to the agrarian sector. For the latter, we will analyze the economic projects introduced by the deputies from the agrarian sector in the Commission of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fisheries of the National Chamber of Deputies, as well as the projects introduced by the different political parties and its final destination.

Finally, we will track the main discussions and questions between the agrarian entities during the analyzed period. Keywords: Agrarian bourgeoisie, Parliament, Business corporations, State. Displacingboundaries: theoretical approaches to a comprehension of total labour in Chile. This paper aims to problematize the concept of labour from diverse theoretical perspectives. On the contrary, the article invite to a deeply reflexion on some new ways of understanding the total labour and focalising its interest in bargaining new theoretical perspectives which has been opening possibilities for innovative and complex comprehension of labour.

The categories of social reproduction, gender perspective and housework are the main articulators of the reflexion. Keywords: Labour, care, housework, reproductive work, time. A debate on the thesis of extractivist-primarization. The manifest aim of this work is to put into debate the thesis of the reprimarization of the Argentine economy, usually related to extractivist theses. The relevance of critically addressing the primary-extractivist thesis is that it was very widespread in recent years in academic and even political spheres.

Keywords: Argentina, post-convertibility, primarization, neo-development. The configuration of the union model of Argentina and Brazil in its relationship with the State From colony to neoliberalism. The present work seeks through a comparative analysis of the history of Argentina and Brazil, providing a hypothetical explanation of why these two south American countries have developed different union models. This is how, observing a more classist and combative trade unionism in Brazil and a more corporate and negotiating syndicalism in Argentina, we offer as main explanatory hypothesis that: the difference in the state attitude toward workers' organizations, mainly restrictive in Brazil and acceptance in the Argentina, produced a combative unionism in Brazil and corporatist Peronist unionism in Argentina.

To base our hypothesis, we will add to the analysis the specific treatment of the development of public sector unions in both countries. Federalism is no excuse : Argentina's provinces and social rights. This article intends to demonstrate that each Argentinean province has a duty to respect, protect and fulfill a broad set of social rights.

This conclusion is based in constitutional supremacy and provincial powers to enact local constitutions. The article rejects the use of federalism as an excuse to exempt Provinces from their duties with regard to social rights. In addition to that, the article stresses the relevance of these legally binding rights in connection with social policy design and analysis. Keywords: social rights; federalism; provincial constitutions. Public enterprises and nationalization policies in Argentina after After the Argentine crisis of , a series of changes occurred in the relations between the State and the market that, among other aspects, were expressed in a growing importance of public enterprises.

However, the nationalizations did not imply a general public policy; on the contrary, nationalizations coexisted with the continuity of former privatized enterprises. Based on various sources documents, newspaper articles, laws , we approach chronologically the period prior to the nationalization of the company in We focus the analysis on the role of the different actors such as unions, private groups and government agencies in the stages of formulation and adoption of the public nationalization policy of Aerolineas Argentinas. Keywords: public enterprises, nationalizations, State, Argentina.

Staring at the others: inclusion and pessimism on Connecting Equality Programme assessments. In this paper we analyze how teenagers from the upper-middle class understand privilege and deprivation. In order to understand how they value access and use of digital technologies and their views on inequalities, we interviewed high school students from La Plata Buenos Aires province, Argentina and asked them their opinions on Programa Conectar Igualdad.

Our findings show that young people have different opinions on Connecting Equality Programme and the people who benefit from it. While some value positively the Programme, others consider it to be a waste of money and an inefficient strategy to diminish inequalities. Youth opinions are linked to how they value digital technologies in their own lives but are also linked to with their opinions and expectations on public policies and politicians. Finally, this paper aims to contribute to the study of public policies by highlighting the multiple ways in which they are received by different people.

Keywords : Inequalities — digital technologies — young people — deprivation - privilege. Our treatment is part of the general debate on the issue of whether the "work" is a central theoretical category or relevant in contemporary social theory. From a number of references on the typology of social action and a conception of society in two planes, such as system and life world, arrive at a dual notion of work to be recognized as the backbone of the theory of communicative action. Therefore, work, will occupy a central place in a theory of society that tries to overcome the assumptions of a philosophy of consciousness and there take a linguistic and intersubjective basis.

Ultimately, recovering a dual notion of work, will express the tensions, conflicts and even paradoxical relationships that are inscribed in the core of Habermasian social theory. Keywords: work; communicative action; intersubjectivity; critical theory. From political history to gender studies: the historiography on the world of labor in the first half of the 20th century in Buenos Aires. The aim of this paper is to revisit the historiography on the world of workers in the years prior to the irruption of Peronism in Argentina, to ponder some of the parameters from which they have been looked at, and are studied again today.

In order to do this we reconstruct the general outlines of the field's research, from the earliest militant interpretations to flourishment of social history. Secondly, we address the contribution that gender studies have made to the historiography on male and female workers. Finally, we review the current trends in historiography, to propose some lines of analysis or possible bridges to think this field of studies from a social and cultural history revitalized by gender studies, to expand a notion of class that has been rigidly anchored to the productive space.

Key words: historiography; Workers; labor movement; Left; Gender studies. Persistent searches: intensive use of drugs , outpatient treatments, daily life and self-care. The environmental issue in Latin America : a reading on Enrique Dussel. The essay discusses the contributions of the philosopher Enrique Dussel for the environmental issue and the process of struggle in Latin America from the perspective of "no rights" from the point of view epistemic and political. Aims to understand the political proposal of Dussel about the reality of environmental struggles linked to the process of expropriation on three occasions.

At first, we will reflect the origin of the modern world-system and the implications of this historic process for the environmental issue. In the second, we will analyze the relationship between the environmental issue, the social struggles and their process of expropriation in Latin America. In the end, we will examine how the environmental issue in the political debate and expanded the social struggles in the light of the philosophy of Enrique Dussel, viewing the historicity of the victims of the world-system or "no rights" expropriated by the Eurocentric matrix and exclusionary.

Keywords: Latin America. Enrique Dussel. Social struggles. Environmental issue.

Intransigent Radicals

Without rights. There is today in Argentina an important body of studies on the impact of labor subcontracting in different sectors of the economy and on workers. However, the studies carried out from the sociology of work, and the analyses and regulatory proposals made from the institutional and legal spheres, have run in separate lanes.

The main goal of this study is to complement both approaches. Taking as input recent analyses from labor sociology, which illuminate the heterogeneity of the phenomenon of subcontracting as a key point, the article makes a regulatory proposal that accounts for this multiplicity of situations in the labor market, and aims to counteract the levels of precarization that labor outsourcing entails today for large masses of workers.

Evolution of the thought of Raul Prebisch in the conformation of the structuralist theory. Convinced of the urgent need to create a coherent set of ideas to analyze and think in a specific way the phenomena of Latin America, Prebisch built his own thought from a vision of economic development and the international insertion of the region. One constitution, two republics: federalism, liberalism and democracy in the constitutional thought of D.

In the present work we will analyze the different projects of constitutional realization of D. Alberdi in Argentine constitutional moment , projected under the same federal Constitution, liberal and republican. To do this, we will recover some methodological approaches and tools that will allow us to better understand political theory in constitutional thought.

Then we will analyze comparatively the proposals of constitutional realization of Alberdi and Sarmiento referred to the federal organization, the different conceptions of liberalism that informed their proposals and the place of democracy in the project of republic of both authors. Keywords: Constitutional history, republic, federalism, liberalism. This problem was extended by the crisis that the national industry went through as a result of neoliberal policies applied during the seventies and nineties.

The bankruptcy of companies led to the destruction of thousands of formal jobs, many of which went into the informal sector in clandestine workshops, a problem that has not changed significantly in the last fifteen years. The objective of this paper is to answer the following question: What was the role of the State, workers and the business sector in the extension of labor informality in the Argentine garment industry? In recent decades, predatory competition has taken place, driven by successive cost reductions through evasion of social charges and non-compliance with safety conditions.

The poor unionization weakened the power of the workers' collective. The State played a double role: on the one hand, diverse economic policies led to the crisis in the sector; on the other, the bodies responsible for inspection and for guaranteeing compliance with labor regulations reduced the intensity of controls, an element that made it possible to extend the problem to current levels. Keywords : informalemployement, apparel industry, neoliberalism.

Rojas transforms this region in a space, which is saturated with socio-cultural connotations which are linked to past and present. Psychosocial Risks in the Academic Profession : An interpretative analysis of the discourse of Argentinian academics. The academic profession has turned into a highly stressful occupation, which increases the relevance of studying the psychosocial risks that affect scholars in higher education institutions.

So far, the majority of prior research on psychosocial risks in the context of universities has measured the prevalence of generic taxonomies of psychosocial factors, thus neglecting to a considerable extent the consideration of other context-specific psychosocial variables that may be affecting the academic profession, particularly in Argentina. Drawing on qualitative evidence collected from eight in depth-interviews with scholars from an Argentinian public university, this article explores six specific categories of psychosocial risks affecting this sample of Argentinian scholars.

The results revealed that increasing job demands such as high work overload, double presence, and feelings of distributive unfairness, along with insufficient levels of fundamental job resources such as career opportunities, external feedback, and participation in decision-making are the main psychosocial risks affecting the participants of this study. The documentary work I carried out allowed me to compile interviews granted by Aira published in periodic publications of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Therefore, I was able to analyse the meaning of the image of hidden writer Aira is usually identified with.

This article studies Aira's account, his answers in interviews, as an object of study in relation to his trajectory and the literary field with the focus on the various meanings assigned by Aira himself. I have built a periodization divided into three moments to analyse how Aira presents himself in public as a writer, and I have used terms Aira himself has introduced: the avant-garde writer, the personal myth, and the silent writer. Keywords : sociology of literature, writer's figure, Argentine literature, literary field. The aim of this paper is to describe inter-union disputes and the way in which they are dealt with in the context of the Argentinian labour relations system.

Drawing on our research, we are able to respond to our central questions that seek to elucidate whether public or private trade union models constitute an obstacle which cultivates, or an advantage which helps to avoid or resolve these types of disputes. The Labour Conflicts database compiled by the Ministry of Work, Employment, and Social Security during the period to was used as a source for our survey of labour conflicts in both public and private sectors. The social valueofwork in a borderzone : the case ofwomen bagayeras in Tartagal, Argentina.

This article focuses on the social value that is given to the work done by women "bagayeras" in a border zone, that of Tartagal Argentina - Yacuiba Bolivia. Through qualitative methodology, based on the observation and interviews techniques, we discuss what categories, such as gender, race, class and nationality, intersect in the work activity, which has been redefined by political and economic changes in the last years.

This study intends to give an account of the cultural and social valuation of the work that is embody, through the intersection of categories, in specific bodies and where the border zones destabilize and reinforce them. The argumentation arises through the conceptual discussion about the border and the value of the work; later Tartagal is described as a border zone. Subsequently, reference is made to the control of the cruise of goods and the forms of work of women in the border zone.

It is concluded that the moral configuration that produces a border zone legitimizes the value of unequal work expressed in concrete bodies and activities. Keywords: social value, work, bagayeras, border zone, Tartagal. Boys, casual labour and sometimes s windle. Precarious jobs experiences in Universal Child Allowance beneficiaries in Catamarca province. In this work two phenomena that are present in an articulated way in the life of young people from vulnerable sectors are analysed. On one hand, it is school attendance based on social policies that accompany high school level compulsory education.

On the other hand, it is the early incorporation into casual labour which prefigures socio-biographical and educational personal development marked by precariousness. The policies of conditioned transferences for young people up to the age of 18 that demand school attendance and the increase of casual labour reinforce the tensions between inclusion and exclusion. Through the reconstruction of three cases of young people from Catamarca it is described the relationships that young people from vulnerable sectors develop with social protection, casual labour or illegality as survival strategies.

Furthermore, it is considered the representations that emerge from those relations and form their own social identity. The strategies that young people develop in the relationships and activities in order to survive as an exercise of anti-establishment movement or what is the same, the remainder of empowerment generated by the same policies under those life circumstancies. Key words : high school, young people, policies of conditioned transferences, precariousness labour.

Aesthetic surgery as a technology of gender. To this aim, it moves on to a critical exposition and a comparative analysis of two emblematic researches on the practice: The Face and Plastic Surgery , by anthropologist Frances Macgregor, and Reshaping the Female Body , by sociologist Kathy Davis. To illustrate these problems, it underscores the reiteration of some of the presuppositions of the "female agent" approach by the hegemonic media discourse of normative femininity, specifically, women's magazines. Keywords : Cosmetic sugery, technology of gender, female agent, Female beauty culture, Feminism, Subjectification.

Enemies or guarantors of freedom? Victoria Haidar.

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Thirdly, we discuss the reflections that, pondering the contribution that unions can make to the configuration of a pluralist democracy, as well as the dangers of their ascendant political influence, were articulated by a set of young catholic-liberal intellectuals that were formed in the field of law and social sciences. It refers to a conflict for decent affordable housing leaded by the Asamblea Sin Techo in Mar del Plata city between and Keywords : recent history, social conflict, historical source, photography, documentalism.

Work occupies a central place in the subjective configuration and social organization, being a cultural production that promotes subjects insertion into relational and community plots and allows a "to do with" objects and others, from dimensions of instinct and wish. In the current socio-economic system, capitalism, premium wage labor, which involves suffering, degradation, oppression, alienation and precariousness for workers. However, there are experiences that show chinks that allow to question and rethink the subjectivities of the workers.

After the first stage of the struggle, once achieved labor continuity through a self-managed mode starts the path of labor organization in the field of production, from where subjectivities rewire their positions and their link to the job. The question that guide exposure is: How are unfold the workers' subjectivities in the new self-managed work configuration? Keywords : work; subjective reconfiguration, fishing companies recovered. Cooperativism and young labor inclusion. A current Argentine experience. Viviana Fridman y Analia Otero. Labor inclusion of young people in Argentina calls the current debate on the major problems and obstacles posed as well as on the prospects to address this concern with various alternatives.

This text aims to present progress of an ongoing investigation in which we study the case of the Cooperative Posta de San Martin as an experience that realizes an alternative work linked to the social economy, gestated at the beginning of the decade in the context of profound changes on restructuring in the organizational forms of wage labor. Here you interested investigate the genesis, evolution and dilemmas facing as well as the dynamics of production and labor organization of the cooperative in light of its potential as an experience that brings a large proportion of young workers who have between 18 and 30 years old.

The methodological strategy adopted is part of the qualitative perspective, working half-structures based on interviews and surveys. After analyzing a number of features that make the dynamics of this experience, it can be considered as a training and training and job placement open to young people without previous experience were identified.

Keywords : youth, work, cooperatives, social economy. Political action and corporations under the kirchnerist administration: the case of Sociedad Rural Argentina Along the years of the kirchnerist administration, the business associations have gone through several transformations and realignments, and the direction and character of their political action have also shifted in comparison to previous periods.

In this paper, we aim to address this issue within the frame of the first five-year period of kirchnerism, and focusing on the actions of one of the most traditional associations in Argentina, which represents the Pampas Argentinian landlords: the Sociedad Rural Argentina SRA. We will seek to analyze its behavior in this new political scenario. Specifically, we will look into the link between the association and the kirchnerist administrations, as well as the alliances established with other organizations. In order to do this, we will first characterize the main economic tendencies of this period, showing that the growth in land rent was appropriated not only by landlords, but also by other subjects; then, we will review some of the most significant tendencies in the actions of the different corporations.

On this ground, we will finally analyze the political action of the SRA, dividing it into four periods and presenting some conclusions. Keywords : political action, corporations, landlords, kirchnerism, Sociedad Rural Argentina. Labour, social and solidary economy and new technological trends. Susana R. The crisis of has marked some trends that indicate a new global socio-technical mutation. In relation to the aforementioned, this article will focus on the following hypothesis: the interest and emphasis placed by the public sector and the private sector, both in the forms of organization of the social and solidary economy - embedded in the ideas of "entrepreneurship" and subjects-entrepreneurs-as well as in the social relations they enable, are linked to new tendencies of socio-technical transformation that imply a greater decentralization of production, distribution, exchange and consumption in today's capitalism.

Our work aims to provide a series of theoretical reflections on the orientation of neoliberalism in today's capitalism, the increasing digitalization of work and, especially, its interest in the social and solidary economy. We will focus on the critical analysis of selected authors and documents from international as well as national organizations. Key-words : Social and solidary economy, emerging technologies, labour digitization, social relations, neoliberalism. Gender and social programs: the construction of a new research agenda.

Vilma Paura y Carla Zibecchi. This paper proposes two main objectives. On the other hand, the purpose is to take account of an interesting bibliographic corpus, which is part of this field of study and allows giving visibility to women as central agents in the domain of social policies. Keywords : gender, social programs, research agenda, academic production. The Police of the City of Buenos Aires: Official speech, tensions and divergences around the configuration of a new police force.

Elea Maglia y Violeta Dikenstein. This agreement purposes a gradual and progressive transfer of personnel, competencies, services and tangible and intangible resources of the Argentine Federal Police related to not federal matters, to the area of the city. Therefore, the Police of the City of Buenos Aires is born. More than a year after its creation, in this work we propose to analyze the configuration of the new police force from two aspects. From a qualitative approach, based on in-depth interviews, participant observation in institutional acts and normative analysis, we focus, on the one hand, on the way in which this force is presented and defined from the official discourse, that is, from the normative, the institutional acts and the interpretations of officials of the executive power of the City.

On the other hand, we analyze the way in which this conjunction of two different institutions is lived bureaucratic and affective, from the perspective of the transferred police personnel and those who remained in the federal sphere. Keywords: police, technology, transfer, official voice, city police. This article seeks to analyze the political conflict that crossed the province of Santiago del Estero during the period - , through the lexicometric analysis of the presses of the left Trots-kyist parties, namely: Socialist Alternative published by the Socialist Movement of the Workers MST and Workers' Word published by the PartidoObrero PO.

The analysis includes two levels, on the one hand we examine the intensity that each publication manifests from the classical perspective of the conflict analysis taking the elements constituting it time and intensity and from this we can visualize what is the spectrum of the political conflict that manifest each publication. And on the other hand, we analyze the set of representative words and the relational structure of these definitions in the proposed analysis scheme; managing to identify the discursive scheme through which both publications pass. In addition, the terms of the Santiago-Trotskyist universe words they share are shown, distinguishing the historical platform and the propaganda in its opposition function and the equivalents Keywords: Political Conflict, Lexicometric Analysis, Left Trotskyist, Santiago del Estero.

Gabriela Benza y Mariana Heredia. It is certainly the urgency of state intervention that explains this preference. Nevertheless, understanding and long lasting reversion of social inequalities requires considering not only disadvantaged but also advantaged groupes of existing social order. In dialogue with a new international literature and in order to contribute to the knowledge of Argentina, this paper aims to analyze social inequalities based on a specific inquiry about the most favored sectors in Buenos Aires.

Keywords: upper class, rich, social stratification, income distribution, inequality. Analysis from local experiences on the province of Buenos Aires Argentina. This paper analyzes the politics of inclusion of family farming FF within the framework of territorial development strategies implemented in Argentina in the period The work is structured throughout an interdisciplinary perspective, with contributions from sociology, political science, anthropology and geography. Our initial premise is that public policies for FF are part of the process of building hegemony, and as such seek integration integration of the subaltern sectors in the economic and social development.

This integration presents degrees of subordination economic, political and ideological which are relevant for analyzing local power relations, which we precisely investigated from the conception of territory as power. In this context, our object of study is the policies for FF and the respective territorial development. In them a qualitative study was carried out mainly through interviews of key informants. Further information related to the analyzed public policy was also supplemented through secondary sources from a local, provincial and national level.

In this way, the different actions the state has pursued to include family farmers were analyzed. Moreover, it was also analyzed how these actions transform the power relations throughout the different scales they were applied upon. These are in turn transformations in the territory and in the territorialities, center of our analysis. Keywords : family farming, public policies, inclusion, hegemony.

Extractivism and education. Nicolas Forlani. The present work aims at reflecting from a critical perspective the link between the expansion of extractivist production logics and the curricular contents of the middle school in the territories in which such logics of accumulation by dispossession occur.

In order to achieve this task in this research we will use an empirical reference: that of the province of Cordoba a "model" territory in terms of the expansion of agribusiness in Argentina and the educational proposal the curricular contents set by the Ministry of Education of this province for the formation of the students in the middle school.

The results of the research reflect the absence of specific contents capable of dimensioning the negative impacts of agribusiness as a hegemonic agricultural logic. Interpretive lines are proposed to understand such deliberate absences. The paper concludes with the presentation of three approaches for non-neutral education, ecology of knowledge, for an education not only critical but also propositive whose horizon points to the construction of a postextractivist education.

Multidimensional peasant economy : repertoire of activities and tension. Magali Luciana Paz. These groups need a defensive mechanism: household unit, which efficiently fulfills the task of preserving socio-cultural bonds in sometimes critical conditions.

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  • The goal of this article is to analyze which are the economic strategies that these domestic units develop and that allow them to guarantee its members daily survival. This subject acquires greater interest in a moment in which the area, of ancient colonial settlement and peasant tradition, has been suffering from the first decades of the twentieth century the destruction of its self-sufficiency, a characteristic that it had maintained over time, due to the increasing influxes of agrarian capitalism in the region.

    Spatial configuration and production tendencies from a regulatory vision.

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    The relative crisis of the alfalfa production cycle might be taken as a tendency to marginalize the activity, by creating economic and social habits that might have deteriorated development possibilities in the region. At this point we will study the impact of institutional ways on the capital accumulation dynamics, whose regularities have mostly been passed on from one circuit to another by highlighting the degree of concentration at the different stages of the production circuit and tendencies of the trading objective.

    The Home-School case for the blind Corina Lona and the development process of the intervention practices on blindness in Salta. Its enroll in a line of collisions mades ince social Sciences about the gratuitylike a differentiated social field, in wich the charity and charity define a significant universo and suppose social relationships between people who aspire legitimizeits existence insideit. For this reconstruction it was resorted historical sources such as newspapers, books, and documents and also current members of the institution are interviewed and people who were part of the establishment, inquiring about the trajectory of it.

    This article its part of a wider investigation that reconstructs a long process of development of the field of social assistance regard ingthe institutionalization of the intervention about blinds and the blindness. Keywords : blindness; intervention; social assistance; charity. Most immigrants are uninformed about the work conditions that they will find at their destination, and sewing is often a viable option for work, since it guarantees housing, food and a salary.

    Immigrants, and in some cases their children, have several health problems caused by unsanitary and dangerous work conditions present in sewing workshops.

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    A large proportion of immigrants do not access health centres to treat their problems due to a lack of knowledge about services, fear, language barriers and mainly because they cannot interrupt their work day due to the risk of diminishing their income determined by the quantity of garments that they produce. Labor trajectories and inequalities. The case of domestic service employees in Santiago del Estero. Lucas Emanuel Torres.

    This article aims to analyse the employment trajectories of domestic workers in order to reflect on social and labour inequalities in Santiago del Estero, Argentina.. As women dominate the domestic labor market, it is necessary to analyze it considering the employees' own life experiences and their relationship with their employers. Through a qualitative study of work trajectories using in-depth interviews to domestic employees, we have the purpose to analyze dimensions such as: starting in the activity, responsabilities in the household, and forms of employment relationship, expectations about them, and varieties of domestic work, seniority and salaries.

    The testimonies of these women provide a range of definitions, from shortages and aptitudes in order to start in the activity, the undefined boundaries between tasks, responsibilities and work schedules, the univocity of the employers regarding decision making, in terms of salaries and ways of starting in the activity, the lack of social security, the low expectations of social and labor promotion. Existing studies in our country about the domestic work industry focus mainly on the city and province of Buenos Aires, places that have been historical receptors of labor force for domestic services.

    However, our province has been a long-term provider of this labor force, therefore certain situations may differ between places, considering these as historical and cultural settings where lasting relationships are established. Keywords : Domestic service, labor trajectories, inequalities, labor market.

    Christian Democrats and Socialists: labor organization and Sunday law among dependents of Commerce in the city of Buenos Aires Sabrina Emilia Asquini. It was the first attempt to form a guild by the Christian democrats. The early intervention of the Socialist Party is another important element to consider. Because through this experience we can analyze the different tendencies present in the labor movement which were competing between themselves to organize to the workers.

    Work and trade union action in global service networks. The article addresses on the question of work in three sectors oriented to the export of services in Argentina: the provision telemarketing services call centers , audiovisual production services and the software and computer services sector. In each sector, the authors analyses the implications of outsourcing and offshoring firm strategies on working conditions and labour relations, during the period of the Kirchnerist governments are analyzed.

    A qualitative and comparative methodological approach is proposed, which include the combined use of various techniques of registration and analysis of information, centrally, the analysis of documentary sources and semi-structured interviews. The results presented here also draws from the fieldwork carried out within separate sector studies. In all three sectors , processes of organizational and labour flexibilization are observed, linked to the current outsourcing and relocation strategies, which cause instability and unpredictability at work, with varying intensity depending on the case.

    Likewise, the authors observe processes of formalization and improvement of working conditions that are explained taking into account the protective orientation of the labour policy, as well as the diverse responses that workers and trade union organizations articulated at the sectoral level. The analysis developed is a contribution to the study of the implications off the insertion in global networks of services on labour and the workers, by exploring some of the favourable and unfavourable effects inherent to their own operating logics, but also contemplating the influences exerted by the broader social relations that determine working conditions and labour relations in each particular sector, place and time.

    Key words: work; offshoring; global service networks; trade union action; Argentina. Minimum wages and collective bargaining in wage determination: interactions between wage policies and trade union positions in Argentina and Uruguay. Adriana Marshall. Focusing in two countries, Argentina and Uruguay, both with a well-established national minimum wage institution and a predominantly industry-wide system of collective bargaining covering most of wage earners, in this article I analyze the relationship between these two coexisting labour institutions during in Argentina and in Uruguay, and how this relationship contributed to shape the evolution of the minimum wage and of private-sector wages.

    The study suggests that, in both countries, in contrast to a widely held belief, national minimum wage increases do not function as standards of reference for wage bargaining, and that those two institutions of wage determination operated autonomously from each other. Keywords : minimum wage, collective bargaining, wage policies, trade unions,wages.

    Social structure of Argentina, Context: despite accumulated knowledge about social classes in Argentina using multiple approaches and based on different data sources, there are not known studies that start from an aggregate point of view, using population censuses, to allow the continuation of the historical series of analysis of Germani-Torrado. Objective: to complement, continue and update studies of social structure from a global and long-term perspective.

    Sources: population censuses from to and Permanent Household Survey. Method: update of the classification scheme of social classes of Torrado. Results: the information constructed shows significant changes in the class structure under the period of analysis, in the different universes of observation, differentials in both regions and in real cohorts and in the long term.

    Panel discussion: Argentina: analysing the results of the General Elections

    There was a decrease in Middle classes between and and its stagnation in and a continuous decrease in the Working class throughout the period , with a concomitant growth of Marginal workers. With the little evidence available, these trends are reversed by Keywords : social structure; social classes; occupation; economic models.

    From personal to collective. Since the restoration of democracy in and with greater force in the last two decades, the word impunity has become of current use in Argentina to designate crimes that have not been duly tried and eventually punished by the corresponding judicial instances. From civil society, this situation led to the emergence of various associations of relatives of victims of violent acts, who, through different practices of collective action, installed in the public space their criticisms and protests for what they considered bad developments of institutions formally charged with preserving public safety and providing justice.

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    These are associations that develop their actions in a general context in which legitimacy and trust in public institutions is strongly questioned, a situation that has probably favored and stimulated their initiatives and recognition in the public space. In this text, our object of analysis is the conformation and dynamics of the Civil Association Mothers of Pain of the City of Buenos Aires, placing in the focus of attention the process by which the individual search for justice was transformed into organically organized collective actions.

    Keywords : Mothers of Pain Association - collective action - legal system. Juan Ignacio Trovero. We propose a review of certain key-texts aimed at, first, calibrating the disciplinaryties between sociology and urban anthropology, and then, at contributing elements to reconstruct a scheme for the study of the city. For this, we rely on two hypothesis. We understand that thereby we can account for the itinerary of a double journey interdisciplinary and spatial-temporal , which speaks more of a simultaneity of problems and a myriad of perspectives, techniques and tools for its approach, than of a phenomenon of simple reception or translation of methods and theories.

    The use and management of the Universal Child Allowance AUH : between the "ought to be" and the economic autonomy of women. Ariela Micha. The Universal Child Allowance AUH is a non-contributory benefit implemented in Argentina in , aimed at children under 18 years old of workers in the informal sector or unemployed.

    This policy includes conditionalities in education and health. The designation of women as the recipients of the transfer led to the debate about the role of women who act as the intermediaries between the State and the children, who are the final beneficiaries. Several studies problematize women's responsibility in fulfilling the conditions and hence the naturalization of their role as caregivers.

    In spite of this maternalism inscribed in the design of the policy, its effects and forms of appropriation by the women are diverse. This paper intends to contribute to this debate by focusing on the perceptions and experiences of the women who are heads of the AUH designated as recipients of the transfer in terms of the use and management of the transfer, and their ambivalent meanings. The potential gain in economic autonomy is explored, through a perspective that emphasizes the social meaning of money.

    Ludmila Scheinkman. Popular and labor wills. The case of Confederation of Workers of the Popular Economy. The article analyzes the relationship between the labor policies of different governments and social organizations, with an emphasis on the singular case of the Confederation of Workers of the Popular Economy and Kirchner's governments. They do not lay on a social and defined identity or a corporate demand. Rather, it constitutes itself as a collective that establishes an antagonistic relationship and one horizon or a universal political project, where the relations of force are crucial in order to understand the results of these.

    They will be characterized not only as a work but also as a State-centered model. The resulting contradictions in there are a political opportunity for the emergence of the popular orientation of the CTEP. At the same time, the nature of the organization is presented as a symptom of the weakness of that model.

    Finally, it will be studied the tensions that emerge after In spite of the change of government and the regressive social and labor context, the labor organization achieved some successes in regard of their demands. This article uses quantitative and qualitative data. The functional distribution of income in Argentina Esteban Ezequiel Maito. In this study, we estimate the national wage share by constructing series of average wages and salaried employment for the total economy, on the basis of particular estimates for formal private and public as well as unregistered employees.

    Wage share recovered during post-convertibility years, even surpassing the levels of the nineties. On the other hand, we estimated the share and the mass of the operating surplus of the total economy to obtain a complete picture of functional distribution during the last decades. Keywords : income share, wage share, wage, operating Surplus. Armida C. In Mexico, there are certain municipalities and communities that are reknowned for the quality of their textile production. The textile and clothing industries have played a significant role in driving capitalist economic development in the country.

    Their development has been constant and uninterrupted, with a strong global presence, but they are struggling to maintain their particular characteristics and cultural components. However, there exists data that show economies with a longstanding tradition of textile production move slowly toward patterns where the trade plays the predominant, determinant role.