Manual Access to Language and Cognitive Development

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Children acquire object permanence at about seven months of age memory. Physical development mobility allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbolic language abilities are developed at the end of this stage. Egocentric thinking predominates. Operational thinking develops mental actions that are reversible. Egocentric thought diminishes. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought.

Only 35 percent of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood. The most significant alternative to the work of Piaget has been the information-processing approach, which uses the computer as a model to provide new insight into how the human mind receives, stores, retrieves, and uses information.

Researchers using information- processing theory to study cognitive development in children have focused on areas such as the gradual improvements in children's ability to take in information and focus selectively on certain parts of it and their increasing attention spans and capacity for memory storage.

For example, researchers have found that the superior memory skills of older children are due in part to memorization strategies, such as repeating items in order to memorize them or dividing them into categories. Infancy As soon as they are born, infants begin learning to use their senses to explore the world around them. Most newborns can focus on and follow moving objects, distinguish the pitch and volume of sound, see all colors and distinguish their hue and brightness, and start anticipating events, such as sucking at the sight of a nipple.

By three months old, infants can recognize faces; imitate the facial expressions of others, such as smiling and frowning; and respond to familiar sounds. At six months of age, babies are just beginning to understand how the world around them works. They imitate sounds, enjoy hearing their own voice, recognize parents, fear strangers, distinguish between animate and inanimate objects, and base distance on the size of an object.

They also realize that if they drop an object, they can pick it up again. At four to seven months, babies can recognize their names. By nine months, infants can imitate gestures and actions, experiment with the physical properties of objects, understand simple words such as "no," and understand that an object still exists even when they cannot see it. They also begin to test parental responses to their behavior, such as throwing food on the floor.

They remember the reaction and test the parents again to see if they get the same reaction. At 12 months of age, babies can follow a fast moving object; can speak two to fours words, including "mama" and "papa"; imitate animal sounds; associate names with objects; develop attachments to objects, such as a toy or blanket; and experience separation anxiety when away from their parents.

By 18 months of age, babies are able to understand about 10—50 words; identify body parts; feel a sense of ownership by using the word "my" with certain people or objects; and can follow directions that involve two different tasks, such as picking up toys and putting them in a box. Toddlerhood Between 18 months to three years of age, toddlers have reached the "sensorimotor" stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development that involves rudimentary thought.

For instance, they understand the permanence of objects and people, visually follow the displacement of objects, and begin to use instruments and tools. They also understand discipline and what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate, and they understand the concepts of words like "please" and "thank you. Toddlers also have a better understanding of emotions, such as love, trust, and fear. They begin to understand some of the ordinary aspects of everyday life, such as shopping for food, telling time, and being read to.

Cognitive Development in Early Childhood language

Preschool Preschoolers, ages three to six, should be at the "preoperational" stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory, meaning they are using their imagery and memory skills. They should be conditioned to learning and memorizing, and their view of the world is normally very self- centered. Preschoolers usually have also developed their social interaction skills, such as playing and cooperating with other children their own age.

It is normal for preschoolers to test the limits of their cognitive abilities, and they learn negative concepts and actions, such as talking back to adults, lying, and bullying. Other cognitive development in preschoolers are developing an increased attention span, learning to read, and developing structured routines, such as doing household chores. School Age Younger school-age children, six to 12 years old, should be at the "concrete operations" stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory, characterized by the ability to use logical and coherent actions in thinking and solving problems.

They understand the concepts of permanence and conservation by learning that volume, weight, and numbers may remain constant despite changes in outward appearance. These children should be able to build on past experiences, using them to explain why some things happen. Their attention span should increase with age, from being able to focus on a task for about 15 minutes at age six to an hour by age nine. Adolescents, ages 12 through 18, should be at the "formal operations" stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory. It is characterized by an increased independence for thinking through problems and situations.

Adolescents should be able to understand pure abstractions, such as philosophy and higher math concepts. During this age, children should be able to learn and apply general information needed to adapt to specific situations. They should also be able to learn specific information and skills necessary for an occupation. A major component of the passage through adolescence is a cognitive transition. Compared to children, adolescents think in ways that are more advanced, more efficient, and generally more complex. This ability can be seen in five ways. First, during adolescence individuals become better able than children to think about what is possible, instead of limiting their thought to what is real.

Whereas children's thinking is oriented to the here and now—that is, to things and events that they can observe directly— adolescents are able to consider what they observe against a backdrop of what is possible; they can think hypothetically. Second, during the passage into adolescence, individuals become better able to think about abstract ideas.

The adolescent's greater facility with abstract thinking also permits the application of advanced reasoning and logical processes to social and ideological matters. This is clearly seen in the adolescent's increased facility and interest in thinking about interpersonal relationships, politics, philosophy, religion, and morality.

Third, during adolescence individuals begin thinking more often about the process of thinking itself, or metacognition. As a result, adolescents may display increased introspection and self-consciousness. Although improvements in metacognitive abilities provide important intellectual advantages, one potentially negative byproduct of these advances is the tendency for adolescents to develop a sort of egocentrism, or intense preoccupation with the self.

A fourth change in cognition is that thinking tends to become multidimensional, rather than limited to a single issue. Whereas children tend to think about things one aspect at a time, adolescents can see things through more complicated lenses. Adolescents describe themselves and others in more differentiated and complicated terms and find it easier to look at problems from multiple perspectives.

One month Watches person when spoken to. Two months Smiles at familiar person talking. Begins to follow moving person with eyes. Four months Shows interest in bottle, breast, familiar toy, or new surroundings. Five months Smiles at own image in mirror. Looks for fallen objects. Six months May stick out tongue in imitation. Laughs at peekaboo game. Vocalizes at mirror image. May act shy around strangers. Seven months Responds to own name. Tries to establish contact with a person by cough or other noise.

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Eight months Reaches for toys out of reach. Responds to "no. May try to prevent face-washing or other activity that is disliked. Shows excitement and interest in foods or toys that are well- liked. Ten months Starts to understand some words. Waves bye-bye. Eleven Repeats performance that is laughed at. Likes repetitive play. Shows interest months in books. Twelve May understand some "where is? May kiss on request. Starting to feed self. Negativism begins. Know some body parts. Obeys two or three simple orders. Two years Names a few familiar objects.

Draws with crayons. Obeys found simple orders. Participates in parallel play. Two-and-a- Names several common objects. Begins to take interest in sex organs. Gives half years full names. Helps to put things away. Peak of negativism. Three years Constantly asks questions. May count to Begins to draw specific objects. Dresses and undresses doll. Participates in cooperative play. Talks about things that have happened. Four years May make up silly words and stories. Beginning to draw pictures that represent familiar things.

Pretends to read and write. May recognize a few common words, such as own name. Five years Can recognize and reproduce many shapes, letters, and numbers. Tells long stories. Begins to understand the difference between real events and make- believe ones. Asks meaning of words. Finally, adolescents are more likely than children to see things as relative, rather than absolute.

Children tend to see things in absolute terms—in black and white. Adolescents, in contrast, tend to see things as relative. They are more likely to question others' assertions and less likely to accept facts as absolute truths. This increase in relativism can be particularly exasperating to parents, who may feel that their adolescent children question everything just for the sake of argument.

Difficulties often arise, for example, when adolescents begin seeing their parents' values as excessively relative. Common Problems Cognitive impairment is the general loss or lack of development of cognitive abilities, particularly autism and learning disabilities. The National Institutes of Mental Health NIMH describes learning disabilities as a disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain.

These limitations can show up in many ways, such as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self-control, or attention. Such difficulties extend to schoolwork and can impede learning to read or write or to do math. A child who has a learning disability may have other conditions, such as hearing problems or serious emotional disturbance. However, learning disabilities are not caused by these conditions, nor are they caused by environmental influences such as cultural differences or inappropriate instruction.

Parental Concerns As of it is widely accepted that a child's intellectual ability is determined by a combination of heredity and environment. Thus, although a child's genetic inheritance is unchangeable, there are definite ways that parents can enhance their child's intellectual development through environmental factors. They can provide stimulating learning materials and experiences from an early age, read to and talk with their children, and help children explore the world around them.

As children mature, parents can both challenge and support the child's talents. Although a supportive environment in early childhood provides a clear advantage for children, it is possible to make up for early losses in cognitive development if a supportive environment is provided at some later period, in contrast to early disruptions in physical development, which are often irreversible. When to Call the Doctor If, by age three, a child has problems understanding simple directions or is perplexed when asked to do something simple, the parents or primary caregiver should consult a physician or pediatrician.

The child may have a delay in cognitive development.

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Parents should also consult a healthcare professional if, after age three, their child's cognitive development appears to be significantly slower than their peers. Resources Books Bjorklund, David F. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Publishing, Pica, Rae. New York: McGraw-Hill, Thornton, Stephanie. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Wadsworth, Barry J. Periodicals Blumberg, Fran. Dahl, Ronald. Li, Xiaoming, and Melissa S. Thurber, Christopher A. Wacharasin, Chintana, et al. Zinner, Susan. Organizations Cognitive Development Society. Web site: www.

NW, Washington, DC Available online at www. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, Available online at accessed November 9, Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Piaget originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a "genetic epistemologist.

This is somewhat similar to the distinctions made between Freud and Erikson in terms of the development of personality. The writings of Piaget e.

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He noticed that young children's answers were qualitatively different than older children which suggested to him that the younger ones were not dumber a quantitative position since as they got older and had more experiences they would get smarter but, instead, answered the questions differently than their older peers because they thought differently. There are two major aspects to his theory: the process of coming to know and the stages we move through as we gradually acquire this ability. Process of Cognitive Development.

As a biologist, Piaget was interested in how an organism adapts to its environment Piaget described as intelligence. Behavior adaptation to the environment is controlled through mental organizations called schemes that the individual uses to represent the world and designate action. This adaptation is driven by a biological drive to obtain balance between schemes and the environment equilibration. Piaget hypothesized that infants are born with schemes operating at birth that he called "reflexes. However, in human beings as the infant uses these reflexes to adapt to the environment, these reflexes are quickly replaced with constructed schemes.

Piaget described two processes used by the individual in its attempt to adapt: assimilation and accomodation. Both of these processes are used thoughout life as the person increasingly adapts to the environment in a more complex manner. Assimilation is the process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures. Accomodation is the process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment.

An example of assimilation would be when an infant uses a sucking schema that was developed by sucking on a small bottle when attempting to suck on a larger bottle. An example of accomodation would be when the child needs to modify a sucking schema developed by sucking on a pacifier to one that would be successful for sucking on a bottle. As schemes become increasingly more complex i. As one's structures become more complex, they are organized in a hierarchical manner i. Stages of Cognitive Development. Piaget identified four stages in cognitive development: 1.

Sensorimotor stage Infancy. In this period which has 6 stages , intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age memory. Some symbollic language abilities are developed at the end of this stage. Pre-operational stage Toddler and Early Childhood.

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In this period which has two substages , intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner. Egocentric thinking predominates 3. Concrete operational stage Elementary and early adolescence. In this stage characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume , intelligence is demonstarted through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects.

Formal operational stage Adolescence and adulthood. In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Many pre-school and primary programs are modeled on Piaget's theory, which, as stated previously, provides part of the foundation for constructivist learning. Discovery learning and supporting the developing interests of the child are two primary instructional techniques. It is recommended that parents and teachers challenge the child's abilities, but NOT present material or information that is too far beyond the child's level.

It is also recommended that teachers use a wide variety of concrete experiences to help the child learn e. Piaget's research methods were based primarily on case studies [they were descriptive]. While some of his ideas have been supported through more correlational and experimental methodologies, others have not. For example, Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next. However, data from similar cross-sectional studies of adolescents do not support the assertion that all individuals will automatically move to the next cognitive stage as they biologically mature.

For formal operations, it appears that maturation establishes the basis, but a special environment is required for most adolescents and adults to attain this stage. Studies in cognitive growth : A collaboration at the Center for Cognitive Studies. Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Experience and education.

How we think. New York: Dover Publications. The development of formal operations. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 95, New York: Appleton-Century Crofts. The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books. The child's conception of the world. New York: Littlefield Adams. The essential Piaget th Anniversary Ed. New York: Jason Aronson. Research, teaching, and learning with the Piaget model. Thought and language. Boston: MIT Press.

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Mind in society : The development of higher psychological processes. Piaget's theory of cognitive development From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For more information, see Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. However, these technologies and devices vary greatly in their linguistic benefit to individual deaf and hard of hearing children. Humphries, et al a argue that due to a cavalier treatment of the importance of keeping this kind of data on linguistic benefit, only informed estimates can be made.

Such informed estimates indicate that no more then 40 percent of deaf and hard of hearing children who have cochlear implants but do not use sign language get a linguistic benefit from the device. Reliance on only spoken language input via cochlear implants may result in linguistic deprivation if sign language is excluded from the environment of the child.

Put simply, if the child is only provided linguistic input through speech and hearing and the CI does not provide the child clear and unambiguous access to this input, language learning is compromised. Often medical and audiology professionals counsel parents to deprive deaf and hard of hearing children especially those who are implanted of exposure to sign language input. This advice to parents arises from a profound misunderstanding about languages, language development, and signed languages.

This advice often leads to delayed language development and limited communication in the home and educational planning that does not acknowledge that the lack of progress in all areas of the school curriculum. If listening technology and speech are used with deaf and hard of hearing children, it is critical that signing also be used in a bilingual, bimodal environment. Mayberry, ; R. Deaf and hard of hearing children like all children have a right to language.

Signed language, being a visual language, is the only completely accessible language for these children. Exposure to signed language from the onset is the only way to ensure this right. Davidson et al. Language is essential to education and the education of deaf and hard of hearing children is no exception. Sign language is not only a necessity to ensure a normal cognitive development, language acquisition, and future academic success, but it is also shown to be biologically equivalent to spoken language L. Hope for improvement in the education of deaf and hard of hearing children lies in early exposure and development of signed language fluency.

To achieve full participation in American life, deaf and hard of hearing children and youth will need two languages, English and ASL.

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Development of both English and ASL must begin as early as possible for every deaf and hard of hearing child. Research has shown that thousands of deaf and hard of hearing children are experiencing various levels of language deprivation, many to an extent that constitutes harm in the form of educational, social-emotional and cognitive delays.

For this reason, it is the position of the National Association of the Deaf that an all-out effort needs to be made to ensure that all deaf and hard of hearing children have full and meaningful access to language from birth and the benefit of visual language and visual learning. All institutions and individuals in the health, education, and child care professions need to be educated on the visual language needs of all deaf and hard of hearing children. It is the responsibility of government agencies such as federal and state Departments of Education and Departments of Social Services to develop safeguards to ensure that every deaf and hard of hearing child is progressing on a developmental path commensurate with children who hear.

Federal and state health agencies and disease control agencies have a responsibility to recognize the epidemic nature of language deprivation of deaf and hard of hearing children, including therapies and treatments that have unacceptable failure rates and unpredictable results. There must no longer be excessive reliance on hope and tolerance of high risk that are not acceptable in other health and education contexts.

The National Association of the Deaf further encourages the development of legislation to ensure age appropriate language acquisition and development in every deaf and hard of hearing child from birth. Laws and regulations that make clear that deaf and hard of hearing children have a right to language from birth through visual language, need to be legislated and enforced. The National Association of the Deaf asserts that the right to a natural, visual language is a human right of all deaf and hard of hearing children. The citations made are selected ones, there are many others that are equally supportive of the positions taken in this position paper.

Context Requiring Action Young deaf and hard of hearing children continue to experience delayed cognitive and language development in early childhood that lead to academic difficulties and underperformance when they begin schooling. Position on Early Childhood Development and Education for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children The period from birth to 2 is a critical time for the acquisition of language and cognition for all children, and this period of time is often when deaf and hard of hearing children are deprived of processes that promote healthy language development Humphries et al.

Required Action Research has shown that thousands of deaf and hard of hearing children are experiencing various levels of language deprivation, many to an extent that constitutes harm in the form of educational, social-emotional and cognitive delays. Anderson, D. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7 2 , Berens, M. Evidence of a bilingual reading advantage in children in bilingual schools from English-only homes. Bilingual Research Journal, 36 1 , Cognitie complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child Development, 70 , Bialystok, E. Bilingual minds.

Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10 3 , Blumenthal-Kelly, A. Lucas Ed. Chamberlain, C. Theorizing about the relationship between ASL and reading. Chamberlain, J. Mayberry Eds.

Second language

Applied Psycholinguistics 29 , Christiansen, J. Deaf President Now! The Reolution at Gallaudet University. Washington, D. Corona, D. Child Development, 80 4 , Crume, P. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18 4 , Teacher practices for promoting visual engagement of deaf children in a bilingual school.

Davidson, K. Spoken English language development among native signing children with cochlear implants. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 19 2 , Fernald, A. Sekerina, E. Clahsen Eds. Hanson, V. Phonological coding in word reading: Evidence from hearing and deaf readers. Harris, M. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46 10 , Hauser, P.

Hauser Eds. NY: Oxford University Press. Hoffmeister, R. English reading achievement and ASL skills in deaf students. Paper presented at the The 21st annual Boston University conference on language development. Humphries, T. Harm Reduction Journal, 9 Visual Anthropology Review, 15 2 , Jasinska, K.