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Some nutritionists recommend higher dietary levels for sows in the eastern corn belt of the USA, where selenium levels in feeds are likely to be low. Vitamin E supplementation can only partially obviate a selenium deficiency. Green forage, legume hays and meals, cereal grains, and especially the germ of cereal grains contain appreciable amounts of vitamin E. Activity of vitamin E is reduced in feedstuffs when exposed to heat, high-moisture conditions, rancid fat, organic acids, and high levels of certain trace elements.

One IU of vitamin E activity is equivalent to 0. This fat-soluble vitamin is necessary to maintain normal blood clotting.

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The requirement for vitamin K is low, 0. Bacterial synthesis of the vitamin and subsequent absorption, directly or by coprophagy, generally will meet the requirement for pigs. Generally, hemorrhaging problems can be traced back to the feeding of diets with moldy grain or other ingredients that contain molds.

This water-soluble vitamin is a constituent of two important enzyme systems involved with carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. Swine diets are normally deficient in this vitamin, and the crystalline form is included in premixes. Niacin is a component of coenzymes involved with metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and protein.

Pigs can convert excess tryptophan to niacin , but the conversion is inefficient. The niacin in most cereal grains is completely unavailable to pigs. Based on recent research, the NRC increased the niacin requirement to 30 ppm during all phases of growth. This vitamin is a component of coenzyme A, an important enzyme in energy metabolism. Swine diets are deficient in this vitamin, and the crystalline salt, d -calcium pantothenate, is included in vitamin premixes.

This vitamin, also called cyanocobalamin, contains cobalt and has numerous important metabolic functions. Feedstuffs of plant origin are devoid of this vitamin, but animal products are good sources. Although some intestinal synthesis of this vitamin occurs, vitamin B 12 is generally included in vitamin premixes for swine.

This vitamin has important roles in the body, but it is of little practical significance for swine because grains and other feed ingredients supply ample amounts to meet the requirement in pigs. A group of compounds called the pyridoxines have vitamin B 6 activity and are important in amino acid metabolism. They are present in plentiful quantities in the natural feed ingredients usually fed to pigs. The requirement for vitamin B 6 in young pigs 5—25 kg was increased by 3—4 fold in the NRC publication compared with the previous edition.

Choline is essential for the normal functioning of all tissues. Pigs can synthesize some choline from methionine in the diet. Sufficient choline is found in the natural dietary ingredients to meet the requirements of growing pigs. If choline is added as a supplement to sow diets, it should not be combined with other vitamins in a premix, especially if trace minerals are present, because choline chloride is hygroscopic and destroys some of the activity of vitamin A and other less stable vitamins. This vitamin is present in a highly available form in corn and soybean meal, but the biotin in grain sorghum, oats, barley, and wheat is less available to pigs.

There is evidence that when these latter cereal grains are fed to swine, especially breeding animals, biotin may be marginal or deficient. Reproductive performance in sows has been found to improve with biotin additions. Although not as clear, there is evidence that reproductive performance also is improved with addition of biotin to corn-soybean meal diets. In some instances, biotin supplementation decreased footpad lesions in adult pigs. For insurance, biotin supplementation is recommended, especially for sow diets.

Raw eggs should not be fed to pigs because egg white contains avidin, a protein that complexes with biotin and renders it unavailable. This group of compounds has folic acid activity. Sufficient folacin is present in natural feedstuffs to meet the requirement for growth, but some studies have shown a benefit in litter size when folic acid was added to sow diets.

Pigs are thought to synthesize this vitamin at a rapid enough rate to meet their needs under normal conditions. However, a few studies have shown benefits in performance of early-weaned pigs under stressful conditions when this vitamin was added to the diet. Linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and probably other long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids are required by pigs. However, the longer chain fatty acids can be synthesized in vivo from linoleic acid, so linoleic acid is considered the dietary essential fatty acid.

The NRC estimates the linoleic acid requirement at 0. The requirement is generally met by the fat present in natural dietary ingredients. The oil in corn is a rich source of linoleic acid. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.

The Veterinary Manual was first published in as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues in the online and mobile app versions today. Common Veterinary Topics.

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Videos Figures Images Quizzes. Protein and Amino Acids:. Fatty Acids:. Test your knowledge. Which of the following most accurately depicts the difference between acute and chronic pain?

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The large hyperechoic white line that floats down into view is the adjacent chorions of the twins. Add to Any Platform. Pigs should have free and convenient access to water, beginning before weaning.

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  8. Was This Page Helpful? Yes No. Feeding Levels and Practices in Pigs. Approximate crude protein g. Selenium ppm. Vitamins and fatty acids. Reproductive Measures. Body weight at breeding kg. Anticipated gestation weight gain kg. Anticipated litter size. The U. Therefore, alternative feeding strategies and novel technologies that have been and are being reviewed that could pose as an alternative approach and viable option for producers wanting to either raise pigs without antibiotics, or reduce the need to use antibiotics will be discussed.

    Mike Varley, director of The Pig Technology Company, will explore the principles and practice of feeding pre- and post-weaned piglets, the elements of nutritional delivery and gut health management. Significant changes in these applications have altered feed ingredients utilized and the practice of formulation itself. The withdrawal of antibiotics, use of alternative energy ingredients and the introduction of novel protein and fiber sources offer nutritionists new opportunities and challenges.

    Lactating sows consume more water because of the high water content of the milk they produce. Water restriction reduces performance and milk production and may result in death if the restriction is severe.

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    Water quality is important. Water should be relatively free of microbial contamination; if not, chlorination may be necessary. Excessive minerals in water may create problems. Energy requirements are expressed as kilocalories kcal of digestible energy DE , metabolizable energy ME , or net energy NE. DE and ME values are used most commonly, but there is a trend in the industry to formulate diets on the basis of NE. Energy requirements of pigs are influenced by their weight which influences the maintenance requirement , their genetic capacity for lean tissue growth or milk production, and the environmental temperature at which they are housed.

    The amount of feed consumed by growing pigs allowed to consume feed ad lib is controlled principally by the energy content of the diet. If the energy density of the diet is increased by including supplemental fat, voluntary feed consumption decreases. Pigs fed such a diet generally will gain faster, and efficiency of gain will improve, but carcass fat may increase. Amino acids, normally supplied by dietary protein, are required for maintenance, muscle growth, development of fetuses and supporting tissues in gestating sows, and milk production in lactating sows.

    Of the 22 amino acids, 12 are synthesized by the animal; the other 10 must be provided in the diet for normal growth. The 10 dietary essential amino acids for swine are arginine , histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

    Cystine and tyrosine can meet a portion of the requirement for methionine and phenylalanine, respectively. The dietary lysine requirement during the early starter phase is quite high 1. The requirement continues to decrease throughout the growing-finishing stage from 1. The amino acids of greatest practical importance in diet formulation ie, those most likely to be at deficient levels are lysine, tryptophan, threonine, and methionine. Corn, the basic grain in most swine diets, is markedly deficient in lysine and tryptophan. The other principal grains for pigs grain sorghum, barley, and wheat are low in lysine and threonine.

    The first limiting amino acid in soybean meal is methionine, but sufficient amounts are provided when soybean meal is combined with cereal grains into a complete diet that meets the lysine requirement. An exception might be in young pigs that consume diets with high levels of soybean meal or diets containing dried blood products low in the sulfur-amino acids.

    Milk protein is well balanced in essential amino acids but usually is too expensive to be used in swine diets, except for very young pigs. Dried whey, commonly used in starter diets, contains protein with an excellent profile of amino acids, but the total protein content of whey is low. Diets based on corn and animal-protein byproducts eg, meat meal, meat and bone meal are inferior to corn-soybean meal diets, but they can be improved significantly by adding tryptophan or supplements that are good sources of tryptophan.

    Animal proteins are also good sources of minerals and B-complex vitamins. Diets formulated for early weaned pigs that contain high levels of dried animal plasma or dried blood cells may be deficient in methionine. However, high levels of methionine can depress growth, so methionine should not be added indiscriminately to diets. Supplemental valine may be of value in corn-soybean meal diets fed to lactating sows, but it is still too expensive to be considered as a dietary supplement. Lysine is generally the first limiting amino acid in almost all practical diets, so if diets are formulated on a lysine basis, the other amino acid requirements should be met.

    A general rule of thumb is that crude protein content can be reduced by 2 percentage points and the diet supplemented with 0.

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    Additionally, it is becoming more popular to formulate swine diets on the basis of standardized or true or apparent digestible amino acids. This method is particularly advantageous when substantial amounts of byproduct feeds are included in the diet. These nutritional elements have many important functions in the body. Although used primarily in skeletal growth, calcium and phosphorus play important metabolic roles in the body and are essential for all stages of growth, gestation, and lactation.

    The NRC estimates requirements of 0. The requirements are higher for younger pigs and lower for finishing pigs, but the ratios of calcium:phosphorus are approximately the same for all weight groups. These levels are adequate for maximal growth rate and efficiency of gain , but they do not allow for maximal bone mineralization.

    Generally, maximal bone ash and strength can be achieved by including 0. For gestating and lactating sows, calcium and phosphorus requirements are influenced by stage of gestation the first 90 days versus the final 25 days of gestation , parity, milk production, and other factors see Table: Reproductive Measures and Dietary Nutrient Requirements of Gestating and Lactating Sows a,b.

    The higher requirements during late gestation are attributed to rapid development of the fetuses. Swine producers may choose to feed slightly higher levels to sows to ensure adequacy of these minerals and to prevent posterior paralysis in heavy milking sows. The calcium and phosphorus requirements listed are based on daily feed intakes of 4. If less feed is consumed per day, the percentages of calcium and phosphorus may need to be adjusted upward. The ratio of total calcium:total phosphorus should be kept between 1.

    A wide calcium:phosphorus ratio reduces phosphorus absorption, especially if the diet is marginal in phosphorus. The ratio is less critical if the diet contains excess phosphorus. When based on digestible phosphorus, the ideal ratio of calcium to digestible phosphorus is between and 2. Most of the phosphorus in cereal grains and oilseed meals is in the form of phytic acid organically bound phosphorus and is poorly available to pigs, whereas the phosphorus in protein sources of animal origin, such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, and fish meal, is in inorganic form and is highly available to pigs.

    Even in cereal grains, availability of phosphorus varies. ATTD phosphorus represents the phosphorus digested, and STTD phosphorus is the digestible phosphorus corrected for endogenous phosphorus excretions. Phosphorus supplements such as monocalcium or dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, and steamed bone meal are excellent sources of highly available phosphorus.

    These supplements also are good sources of calcium. Ground limestone also is an excellent source of calcium. Phosphorus is considered a potential environmental pollutant, so many swine producers feed diets with less excess phosphorus than in the past to reduce phosphorus excretion. Supplemental phytase, an enzyme that degrades some of the phytic acid in feedstuffs, is commonly added to diets to further reduce phosphorus excretion.

    The general recommendation is that dietary calcium and phosphorus can both be reduced by 0. The recommended level of salt is 0. Animal, fish, and milk byproducts can contribute some of the sodium and chloride requirement. Practical diets contain ample amounts of these minerals from the grain and protein sources, and supplemental sources are not needed.


    Magnesium oxide supplementation has been used to prevent cannibalism, but controlled studies do not support this practice. These minerals are involved in many enzyme systems. Both are necessary for formation of Hgb and, therefore, for prevention of nutritional anemia.

    Piglet Nutrition Part 1 : Importance of Piglet Nutrition - Agribusiness Philippines

    Because the amount of iron in milk is very low, suckling pigs should receive supplemental iron, preferably by IM injection of — mg in the form of iron dextran, iron dextrin, or gleptoferron during the first 3 days of life also see Iron Toxicity in Newborn Pigs. Giving oral or injectable iron and copper to sows will not increase piglet stores at birth nor will it increase the iron in colostrum and milk sufficiently to prevent anemia in neonatal pigs.

    High levels of iron in lactation feed results in iron-rich sow feces that pigs can obtain from the pen.