But Elias did not grant a privileged position to the academic study of history. While remarking on major breakthroughs in the social sciences that would not have occurred without specialist works of history, Elias criticised many academic historians on two grounds. First, the tendency to select topics of manageable proportions led to the isolation of specific events, periods or eras.
Their position within longer processes of development was lost from view. Many years must be devoted to mastering particular subject-areas — such is the volume of the available literature, archival material, relevant statistical data, and so forth. On the other hand, in reaction against specialisation or over-specialisation, many scholars do explore connections between disciplinary and inter-disciplinary areas.
For Elias, that project would require not only greater synthesis within the social sciences and the humanities, but new connections between biological and sociological modes of inquiry that would cast light on the development of the human species over millions of years see An Essay on Time as listed earlier, Involvement and Detachment , University College Dublin Press, , and The Symbol Theory , University College Dublin Press, Such standpoints had fallen from favour.
They had been criticised for supporting particular notions of historical teleology and progress that had rightly been abandoned. They regard developments in particular times and places as expressions of more general laws. Elias did not deny that there are patterns, as opposed to laws, in human history, and indeed recurrent features in the relations between societies. The challenge was to understand and explain them processually.
The narrative showed how the idea of civilization emerged in France in the late eighteenth century, replacing the earlier idea of civility.
Please Consider Donating
The reference to a civilizing process has led some readers to suppose that Elias was repeating earlier nineteenth century narratives about the gradual ascent of European peoples to a position of superiority over all others. But that was not his intention. The task was to explain the development of European self-images — not to lend them a seal of approval. Elias emphasised that China had gone through a process that was similar in some respects to the European civilizing process.
Moreover, Elias made it clear that his work was designed to shed light on a civilization that had entered a period of profound crisis. They had been deluded in thinking that their civilization was a condition rather than a process — and one that could crumble quickly and go into reverse.
Elias sought to explain the European civilizing process rather than to compare different civilizing processes in human history. His analysis focused on such apparently disparate phenomena as state-building and domestic pacification, the growth of commerce and urban centres that integrated people in longer webs of interconnectedness, and the increased need for self-restraint in response to the everyday challenges of living together.
What had once been socially-acceptable became a source of shame.
For example, being discovered naked became a source of embarrassment. The analysis considered such phenomena as changing table manners, but on the assumption that the seemingly mundane aspects of everyday life cast light on larger patterns of change in the ways in which people were bound together. Seemingly mundane forms of conduct were revealing features of the larger social totality. The increasing use of the knife and fork was a case in point. The knife was gradually turned from a weapon into a humdrum eating utensil.
Concepts and Principles
That was a manifestation of the larger pacification of society, and a symbol of changing attitudes to violence. As part of that same movement, they came to regard judicial torture as contradicting their civilized values. Changes occurred in attitudes to capital punishment and to the public execution of criminals so that, today, opponents of the death penalty maintain that it has no place in a society that regards itself as civilized. The same is true of death and dying.
Imperial conquest demonstrated that Europeans were prepared to use force against other peoples; they were also prepared to use force against each other. They may have made major advances in removing the danger of violence from everyday life within their respective societies, but they did not have the same taboos against using force in their external relations. His explanation was essentially realist.
- Norbert Elias.
- Strength and Failure of Visco-Elastic Materials?
- Services on Demand.
- Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs and Memories;
- The Orange Fairy Book.
- Environmental Valuation in Developed Countries: Case Studies.
There is, he maintained, a high probability of war wherever societies must provide their own security. They are often drawn into conflicts that no-one desired. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book Norbert Elias has been recognized as one of the key social scientists of the 20th century at least in sociology, political science and history. Show all.
Elias in the Eurozone Pages Clement, Matt. Show next xx. Services for this book Download High-Resolution Cover. Volume 4 Focuses on criticisms of Elias's work and the responses of Elias and his sociological followers. Erfahrugen mit Norbert Elias. Ihr Verhaltnis zu Huizinga, Weber und Freud.
Norbert Elias Foundation
Elias and Foucault on Discipline and the Self. A Commentary on the Sociology of Norbert Elias. Reading Elias. On the Genesis of a Global Time Regime. Theoretical Significances and Some Lines for Research. Comparing Civilizing Processes.
Studies over Staatsvorming en Geweld. Figurational Explorations of the State and Money. The Commandments of the New Freedom. Analysis and Interpretation of an Advice Column.
- About Norbert Elias and the Sociology of Education.
- Norbert Elias - Wikipedia.
- Old Wine in New Skins: Centering Prayer and Systems Theory (Centering Prayer & Systems Theory)?
- Norbert Elias - Wikipedia?
A Case Study and Conceptual Discussion. A Process Theory.